MECHANIZATION - Container ship unloading in a Dutch port.



Imagine a world with total Free Trade. No restrictions on goods exchange and no import duty taxes - with supply and demand being the limiting factors. That utopian situation is unlikely to occur in our lifetime until world politics advances to a higher plain. That might help reduce complications and administrative carbon.


Governments though, love taxes and sanctions. They don't want cheaper goods flooding their markets and fear the equality that would mean as an end game. They do though want the goods. For example, we could do without bananas, tea and coffee, but we want those goods for variety and they would be much more expensive (or even impossible) to produce locally. Every part of the world is thus a unique contributor to society, even where factories to produce electronic goods could be located anywhere, they are not. They are located conveniently to sources and transport. 




But what of tourism and immigration. If there were no borders or controls, there could be widespread chaos as people congregated in supposed areas of prosperity, that would then collapse due to the logistical impossibility of supplying an intensely populated area, not to mention the strain on housing. Loosely speaking human population spread should be geared to the ability of the land to provide food locally and the practicality of building homes. All of which relies on a sustainable transport network.


For these reasons, though passenger travel is to be encouraged where the transport medium is zero carbon, tourists should return to their native homes to maintain a sustainable geographical population spread.




OOSTENDE - It takes a lot to support the offshore energy industry. Belgium has 232 wind turbines in the North Sea that make a significant contribution towards their renewable energy targets. Together, they are responsible for generating enough electricity to supply no fewer than 750,000 families. And more of them are on the way. Ultimately, the aim is to achieve a total of 450 wind turbines with a total capacity of 770 TWh, yielding an annual electricity supply of 8,085 TWh, the equivalent of 9.5% of electricity consumption in Belgium. 





Ignoring the above for now, we are looking for ports and docks that can handle cargo and passengers more efficiently, the main reason for having docks and passenger terminals.


Ports are one of the driving forces for economic activity of any country. They need to be adaptable and connected for sustainable blue growth.


One of the easiest ways of becoming sustainable is to go green to reduce their carbon footprint and environmental impact. One way to decrease this influence is to connect docked ships to shore side electricity. Another is for ports and docks to use renewable energy.


By increasing the logistical efficiency of any port, delays are reduced as well as energy consumption. Reduced delays means happy passengers and a better reputation for receipt and distribution of goods and materials. Business practices and software can help here.


Strict environmental regulations now include an obligation to reduce emissions from vessels imposed by IMO MARPOL Annex VI and the sulphur directive.

The implementation of the EU Clean Fuel Strategy and the EU Directive on Deployment of Alternative Fuel Infrastructure is at the moment concentrating on providing LNG refueling facilities to replace bunker fuels for new ships. This lowers the cost of transport and helps to regenerate the oceans by reducing acidification.


One of the most significant sectors of the economy of many ports, due to the export opportunities, is ship building capacity. This involves the direct and indirect employment of a skilled workforce and highly qualified professionals.

One way to improve output is to encourage diversification and the commitment to build increasingly specialized types of ships, where innovation is a key factor.




BLUE ECONOMY - Ireland’s shipping and transport sector was the largest contributor in terms of turnover to the growth of the country’s blue economy’ in 2016.

Shipping is also responsible for the FTE employment of 4,666 people, an increase of 6.7% since 2014, according to the latest report from the Socio-Economic Marine Research Unit.

Figures from the fourth SEMRU report show that the ‘blue economy’ is outperforming Ireland’s general economy.

But the report also details now sea-based transport in particular accounted for 85% of the total volume and 56% of the total value of goods traded in Ireland in 2016, and continues to be the largest contributor to Ireland's ocean economy in terms of turnover and Gross Value Added (GVA).

The positive trend is also reflected in a report released in 2017 by the Irish Maritime Development Office (IMDO), the Irish Maritime Transport Economist, which records a 2% increase in total port traffic in 2016, the highest level of throughput achieved since 2007.







AdakPort of Adak

AkutanPort of Akutan

Alabama Inland PortsPort of Alabama Inland Ports

AlamedaPort of Alameda

AlgonacPort of Algonac

AlleganPort of Allegan

AnacortesPort of Anacortes

AnchoragePort of Anchorage

AngoonPort of Angoon

ApalachicolaPort of Apalachicola

AshlandPort of Ashland

AshtabulaPort of Ashtabula

AstoriaPort of Astoria

AtrecoPort of Atreco

Avon ParkPort of Avon Park

BalboaPort of Balboa

BaltimorePort of Baltimore

BangorPort of Bangor

Barber's Point HarborPort of Barber's Point Harbor

Bar HarborPort of Bar Harbor

BathPort of Bath

Baton RougePort of Baton Rouge

Bay CityPort of Bay City

BeaumontPort of Beaumont

BelfastPort of Belfast

Bell BayPort of Bell Bay

BellinghamPort of Bellingham

BeniciaPort of Benicia

BethelPort of Bethel

BirminghamPort of Birmingham

Black Rock HarborPort of Black Rock Harbor

Boca GrandePort of Boca Grande

BostonPort of Boston

BridgeportPort of Bridgeport

BridgetownPort of Bridgetown

BrownsvillePort of Brownsville

Brownsville-Port IsabelPort of Brownsville-Port Isabel

BrunswickPort of Brunswick

BuffaloPort of Buffalo

BurasPort of Buras

BurlingtonPort of Burlington

Burns HarborPort of Burns Harbor

Camas-WashougalPort of Camas-Washougal

CambridgePort of Cambridge

CamdenPort of Camden

Cape CharlesPort of Cape Charles

Cape Cod CanalPort of Cape Cod Canal

CharlestonPort of Charleston

CharlevoixPort of Charlevoix

ChattanoogaPort of Chattanooga

CheboyganPort of Cheboygan

ChicagoPort of Chicago

Chicago HeightsPort of Chicago Heights

ClarkstonPort of Clarkston

ClaytonPort of Clayton

ClearwaterPort of Clearwater

ClevelandPort of Cleveland

Cold BayPort of Cold Bay

ColumbusPort of Columbus

ConneautPort of Conneaut

Coos BayPort of Coos Bay

CordovaPort of Cordova

Corpus ChristiPort of Corpus Christi

CraigPort of Craig

Crescent CityPort of Crescent City

CrossettPort of Crossett

DallasPort of Dallas

Delaware BayPort of Delaware Bay

Delaware CityPort of Delaware City

DenverPort of Denver

Des MoinesPort of Des Moines

Des PlainesPort of Des Plaines

DestrehanPort of Destrehan

DetroitPort of Detroit

Detroit CityPort of Detroit City

DillinghamPort of Dillingham

Drift River Marine TerminalPort of Drift River Marine Terminal

Duluth-SuperiorPort of Duluth-Superior

DunkirkPort of Dunkirk

Dutch HarborPort of Dutch Harbor

Eastport Maine UsaPort of Eastport Maine Usa

East Saint LouisPort of East Saint Louis

EddystonePort of Eddystone

El CapitanPort of El Capitan

ElizabethPort of Elizabeth

El SegundoPort of El Segundo

EriePort of Erie

EscanabaPort of Escanaba

EverettPort of Everett

FairportPort of Fairport

FargoPort of Fargo

Fernandina BeachPort of Fernandina Beach

FerndalePort of Ferndale

Fond Du LacPort of Fond Du Lac

Fort LauderdalePort of Fort Lauderdale

FreeportPort of Freeport

GallupPort of Gallup

GalvestonPort of Galveston

GarfieldPort of Garfield

GeorgetownPort of Georgetown

GloucesterPort of Gloucester

Good HopePort of Good Hope

Grand HavenPort of Grand Haven

Grays HarborPort of Grays Harbor

Great LakesPort of Great Lakes

Green BayPort of Green Bay

Greenport HarborPort of Greenport Harbor

Grove CityPort of Grove City

GuamPort of Guam

GulfportPort of Gulfport

GustavusPort of Gustavus

HainesPort of Haines

HamburgPort of Hamburg

Hampton RoadsPort of Hampton Roads

HardwickPort of Hardwick

HavanaPort of Havana

HollisPort of Hollis

HomePort of Home

HonoluluPort of Honolulu

HoonahPort of Hoonah

HoultonPort of Houlton

HoustonPort of Houston

Howey In The HillsPort of Howey In The Hills

HuenemePort of Hueneme

Huntington BeachPort of Huntington Beach

HuntsvillePort of Huntsville

HuronPort of Huron

Hyannis HarborPort of Hyannis Harbor

HydaburgPort of Hydaburg

IndianapolisPort of Indianapolis

JacksonvillePort of Jacksonville

Johnston Island HarbourPort of Johnston Island Harbour

KahuluiPort of Kahului

Kailua KonaPort of Kailua Kona

KakePort of Kake

KalamaPort of Kalama

KanePort of Kane

KawaihaePort of Kawaihae

KenaiPort of Kenai

KennewickPort of Kennewick

KenoshaPort of Kenosha

KetchikanPort of Ketchikan

King CovePort of King Cove

Kings MountainPort of Kings Mountain

KlawockPort of Klawock

KlickitatPort of Klickitat

KnikPort of Knik

KodiakPort of Kodiak

KotzebuePort of Kotzebue

LandisPort of Landis

LewistonPort of Lewiston

Long BeachPort of Long Beach

LongviewPort of Longview

LorainPort of Lorain

Los AngelesPort of Los Angeles

MadillPort of Madill

ManisteePort of Manistee

ManitowocPort of Manitowoc

Marcus HookPort of Marcus Hook

MarquettePort of Marquette

MarreroPort of Marrero

MartinezPort of Martinez

MassenaPort of Massena

MellvillePort of Mellville

MelvillePort of Melville

MemphisPort of Memphis

MetlakatlaPort of Metlakatla

MiamiPort of Miami

MillersvillePort of Millersville

MilwaukeePort of Milwaukee

Mississippi RiverPort of Mississippi River

MobilePort of Mobile

MonroePort of Monroe

Morehead CityPort of Morehead City

MorrisvillePort of Morrisville

MorrowPort of Morrow

MosellePort of Moselle

Moss LandingPort of Moss Landing

MuskegonPort of Muskegon

NaknekPort of Naknek

Nantucket HarborPort of Nantucket Harbor

NaplesPort of Naples

NashvillePort of Nashville

NawiliwiliPort of Nawiliwili

NenanaPort of Nenana

NewarkPort of Newark

New OrleansPort of New Orleans

New PhiladelphiaPort of New Philadelphia

NewportPort of Newport

Newport NewsPort of Newport News

Newport News HamptonPort of Newport News Hampton

New YorkPort of New York

NikiskiPort of Nikiski

NorfolkPort of Norfolk

North CharlestonPort of North Charleston

NorthportPort of Northport

North PrairiePort of North Prairie

Oak BluffPort of Oak Bluff

OaklandPort of Oakland

OdessaPort of Odessa

OgdensburgPort of Ogdensburg

OlympiaPort of Olympia

OntonagonPort of Ontonagon

OrangePort of Orange

OrlandoPort of Orlando

OsloPort of Oslo

OstricaPort of Ostrica

OswegoPort of Oswego

PalmdalePort of Palmdale

Panama City (Fl)Port of Panama City (Fl)

ParlierPort of Parlier

PasadenaPort of Pasadena

PascagoulaPort of Pascagoula

PascoPort of Pasco

PattersonPort of Patterson

PaulsboroPort of Paulsboro

PearlingtonPort of Pearlington

PelicanPort of Pelican

PennsaukenPort of Pennsauken

Penns GrovePort of Penns Grove

PensaukenPort of Pensauken

PhiladelphiaPort of Philadelphia

PhoenixPort of Phoenix

PittsburgPort of Pittsburg

PittsburghPort of Pittsburgh

PlaqueminesPort of Plaquemines

PlymouthPort of Plymouth

Port AllenPort of Port Allen

Port ArthurPort of Port Arthur

Port CanaveralPort of Port Canaveral

Port Chester HarborPort of Port Chester Harbor

Port ClydePort of Port Clyde

Port EvergladesPort of Port Everglades

Port FourchonPort of Port Fourchon

Port GamblePort of Port Gamble

Port GibsonPort of Port Gibson

Port HuronPort of Port Huron

Port JeffersonPort of Port Jefferson

PortlandPort of Portland

Portland (Me)Port of Portland (Me)

Port LavacaPort of Port Lavaca

Port ManateePort of Port Manatee

Port ReadingPort of Port Reading

Port RoyalPort of Port Royal

Port San LuisPort of Port San Luis

PortsmouthPort of Portsmouth

Port St JoePort of Port St Joe

Port TownsendPort of Port Townsend

Port WashingtonPort of Port Washington

Port WentworthPort of Port Wentworth

ProvincetownPort of Provincetown

RacinePort of Racine

Red DogPort of Red Dog

Redwood CityPort of Redwood City

ReverePort of Revere

RichardtonPort of Richardton

RichmondPort of Richmond

Riverhead TerminalPort of Riverhead Terminal

RochesterPort of Rochester

RocklandPort of Rockland

SabinePort of Sabine

SacramentoPort of Sacramento

SalemPort of Salem

Salt Lake CityPort of Salt Lake City

San AntonioPort of San Antonio

San DiegoPort of San Diego

Sand PointPort of Sand Point

SandwichPort of Sandwich

San FranciscoPort of San Francisco

Santa BarbaraPort of Santa Barbara

SavannahPort of Savannah

SaxmanPort of Saxman

SeagovillePort of Seagoville

Seattle (Wa)Port of Seattle (Wa)

SeldoviaPort of Seldovia

SewardPort of Seward

Sewells PointPort of Sewells Point

SitkaPort of Sitka

SkagwayPort of Skagway

South KearnyPort of South Kearny

South LouisianaPort of South Louisiana

Stamford HarborPort of Stamford Harbor

StampsPort of Stamps

St Bernard PortPort of St Bernard Port

St GeorgePort of St George

St HelensPort of St Helens

St LouisPort of St Louis

St MichaelPort of St Michael

StocktonPort of Stockton

Stonington HarborPort of Stonington Harbor

St PaulPort of St Paul

St PetersburgPort of St Petersburg

StreatorPort of Streator

SulligentPort of Sulligent

Sunny Point TerminalPort of Sunny Point Terminal

TacomaPort of Tacoma

Taconite HarborPort of Taconite Harbor

TampaPort of Tampa

Texas CityPort of Texas City

The DallesPort of The Dalles

Thorne BayPort of Thorne Bay

ToledoPort of Toledo

Tongue PointPort of Tongue Point

TulsaPort of Tulsa

UmatillaPort of Umatilla

VancouverPort of Vancouver

VenicePort of Venice

WaddingtonPort of Waddington

Walla WallaPort of Walla Walla

WaukeganPort of Waukegan

Whitman CountyPort of Whitman County

WhittierPort of Whittier

WilmingtonPort of Wilmington

Winston SalemPort of Winston Salem

WinterportPort of Winterport

WoodbridgePort of Woodbridge

WrangellPort of Wrangell

WyandottePort of Wyandotte

YakutatPort of Yakutat








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Ports K


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LLOYD'S REGISTER - Lloyd’s Register (LR) and Shipping in Changing Climates released Low Carbon Pathways 2050 – a new study that details a number of potential pathways for the shipping industry’s transition to a low carbon future. The report underlines the need for shipping to start its decarbonisation imminently – as stringency increases over time, increasingly high-cost mitigation steps are required. The later we leave decarbonisation, the more rapid and potentially disruptive it will be for shipping.





Lists of busiest ports


World's busiest port - list of ports that claim to be the world's busiest by various measures

List of world's busiest container ports - by number of twenty-foot equivalent units (TEUs) transported through the port

List of world's busiest ports by cargo tonnage - by weight of cargo transported through the port

List of world's busiest transshipment ports - by total containerised transshipment cargo handled

List of world's busiest port regions by cargo tonnage

List of busiest ports in Europe - by several measures including number of twenty-foot equivalent units (TEUs) handled, by cargo tonnage and percentage transshipment.


Lists by ocean or sea


List of ports and harbours of the Atlantic Ocean

Ports of the Baltic Sea

Channel ports - ports and harbours of the English Channel

List of North Sea ports - ports of the North Sea and its influent rivers

List of coastal settlements of the Mediterranean Sea

List of ports and harbors of the Arctic Ocean

List of ports and harbours of the Indian Ocean

List of ports and harbors of the Pacific Ocean

Southern Ocean - See Category: Ports and harbors of Antarctica


Ice pier - McMurdo Station


National and sub-national lists


List of ports in Argentina

List of ports in Australia

List of ports in Belgium

List of ports in Cabo Verde

List of ports in China

List of ferries, wharfs and ports in Guangzhou

List of ports in England and Wales

List of Liverpool Docks

List of locations in the Port of London

List of ports and harbours in Estonia

List of ports in Greece

Ports in India

List of ports in Indonesia

List of ports in Ireland

List of seaports in Mexico

List of ports in the Philippines

List of ports in Romania

List of ports and harbours in Scotland

Ports and harbours in South Africa

List of ports in Spain

List of seaports of the Valencian Community

List of ports in Sri Lanka

List of ports in Turkey

List of ports in Ukraine

List of ports in the United States







 5.  Ocean Regeneration - cleaning our oceans to preserve the resource and cleanse the toxic food chain

 6.  Aquaculture - now generates around 50% of world produce, mostly subject to wild fish feed

 7.  Ocean Energy - offshore wind and wave energy for clean power

 8.  Biotechnology - Identifying, harvesting and producing medicines

 9.  Coastal Tourism - To engage the public in ocean matters and reduce air travel

10. Green Ships - Cargo and cruise ships that are cleaner, preferably zero carbon

11. Green Ports - Ports and docks that are more efficient at handling passengers and cargo




A Green Blue Project has promulgated its Environmental Code of Practice to advise marine related businesses, sailing clubs, and training centers on the interaction of environmental regulations and good business management. Key contributors to the document are the British Marine Federation (BMF), Royal Yacht Association (RYA), and United Kingdom Environmental Agencies.

Environmental Management Systems (EMS)

The Environmental Code of Practice is founded on the premise that boating’s use of the coastal waterfront and inland waters must be sustainable, that is development of boating needs in the present do not compromise use of natural resources by others in the future. Use of an Environmental Management System (EMS) by a marine related entity ensures that the organization complies with national environmental policies.

The starting point for implementation of a EMS is the development of an Environmental Policy Statement that outlines company recognition of environmental issues and actions to be taken in mitigating these concerns. There are at least two immediate benefits of adopting a policy statement; the first is active communication of an organization’s commitment to the environment, and secondly, a positive means of inadvertently violating environmental regulations.

Code sponsors make the case that utilizing the standard make good business sense. Arguments include prevention or reduction of future legislation through self-governance, direct operational savings through good management practices, improvements to organizational reputation, and preserving the boating environment for future users and customers. The Environmental Code of Practice identifies some key boating issues with the environment and offers practical solutions to mitigate them.




Resource Efficiency – Resources in a business can take on a number of forms. Efficient use of energy, paper and water, reducing and managing solid wastes, preventing pollution from sources like anti-fouling paint, and transportation use can save money and help the environment

Waste Management – Marine activities generate solid and liquid wastes. Much of the handling of these operational byproducts determines whether they can be recycled or ultimately become hazardous wastes. Reducing wastes and recycling wastes helps protect the environment and reduce costs for landfill disposal

Managing Oils, Fuels, and Hazardous Materials – Releases of fuel and oil have a direct and negative impact on the marine environment. There are Best Management Practices (BMP) available for fuel storage and dispensing that greatly reduce the risk of harmful spills. Practices associated with boat washdown, cleaning and maintenance also reduce environmental impacts and lower the levels of hazardous wastes entering marine ecosystems

Pontoons, Pilings and Moorings, and Slipways – Design and construction of vessel moorings effects their useable lifespan and their impact on the environment. There are design standards in place that can help lessen mooring facility maintenance and mitigate installation of new moorings

Habitat and Water Management Boat and mooring facility management can cause negative effects on the marine ecosystem. There are many means that industry can take like avoiding sensitive habitats and controlling nuisance weeds that can improve habitat

Flood Risk Management – Moorings along inland waters are subject to flooding and owners can take measures like clearing culverts, preventing obstructions to water flow, and removing debris that can mitigate the risk of flooding

Sewage and Waste Water Management – Sewage affects the natural demand for oxygen and can cause harmful algae blooms. Decomposing algae creates dead zones where other aquatic wildlife cannot survive. Proper treatment and disposal of waste water is necessary to protect marine ecosystems












Humpback wales are dying from plastic pollution


MARINE LIFE - This humpback whale is one example of a magnificent animal that is at the mercy of human activity. Humans are for the most part unaware of the harm their fast-lane lifestyles are causing. We aim to change that by doing all we can to promote ocean literacy.



 This website is provided on a free basis as a public information service. Copyright © Cleaner Oceans Foundation Ltd (COFL) (Company No: 4674774) 2018. Solar Studios, BN271RF, United Kingdom. COFL is a charity without share capital.